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Middlesex-London Health Unit

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Social Determinants of Health

Health is affected by many things, including the conditions in which individuals and communities live, learn, work, and play. The social determinants of health can influence health outcomes negatively. Lack of income, food insecurity, and social exclusion are examples of negative influences.1 Barriers to health equity are centered around the social determinants of health. Examples of barriers include systemic oppression, racism, low socio-economic status, and culturally unsafe environments.


Health equity is linked to the following key social determinants of health:2

  • Access to health services
  • Culture, race, and ethnicity
  • Disability
  • Early childhood development
  • Education, literacy, and skills
  • Employment, job security, and working conditions
  • Food insecurity
  • Gender identity and expression
  • Housing
  • Income and income distribution
  • Indigenous status
  • Personal health practices and resiliency
  • Physical environments
  • Sexual orientation and attraction
  • Social inclusion/exclusion
  • Social support networks

Community Health Status Resource

Information on social determinants of health, and local indicators for Middlesex-London, can be found on the Community Health Status Resource. This website provides a general overview of the status of population health in Middlesex-London, and factors contributing to health.

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Date of creation: February 10, 2013
Last modified on: July 10, 2019


1Ontario Public Health Association. (2014). Resolution #1: Position statement on applying a health equity lens. Toronto, ON: Ontario Public Health Association.
2Raphael D. Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives. 2nd ed. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press; 2009.