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Children, Youth and the COVID-19 Vaccine

The COVID-19 vaccine is a vital tool in our response to this pandemic. By getting your child vaccinated, you will help to prevent potential COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in our communities. Please read the information below to learn more about the COVID-19 vaccine for children and help your family prepare to receive the vaccine.


Should my child be vaccinated?

Yes. The COVID-19 vaccine reduces the risk of your child getting COVID-19; if your child does become infected with COVID-19, being vaccinated can help make the symptoms milder. Children and youth are also at-risk of getting COVID-19 and passing it to others who may be at a higher risk of becoming seriously ill.

By getting your child vaccinated, you will help to prevent potential COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in our communities. It will also help keep our communities open so we can continue to work, go to school, and spend time with friends, family and loved ones.

If you have questions or concerns about whether or not to vaccinate your child, consider talking to your healthcare provider to have your questions answered.

Is the COVID-19 vaccine safe for children?

Yes. Vaccines that have been approved by Health Canada have all received a thorough and independent scientific review of the research and have been determined to be both safe and effective. There have been no shortcuts in conducting these reviews. Advancements in vaccine technology, sustained funding and cooperation among experts in the field have allowed these vaccines to be developed quickly.

It is also important to remember that all vaccines approved for use in Canada are heavily regulated by Health Canada. As a result, it is illegal to sell or market a vaccine that has not completed all of the research stages and trials required for approval. International cooperation on the development of COVID-19 vaccines has allowed countries to compare trial results and data from around the world, to ensure vaccine safety over a relatively short period of time. Learn more about vaccine safety →

What side effects can children experience after receiving the vaccine?

As with most vaccines, common side effects have been reported during research trials. 

Not everyone will experience side effects after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine; most side effects tend to be minor and typically do not last for long.

Potential side effects include:

  • Pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site
  • Tiredness
  • Headache
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Chills or fever

Serious side effects are rare
While COVID-19 vaccines are relatively new, serious side effects have been rare. The risk of anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction) is low in people who do not have an existing allergy to the vaccine’s ingredients.

In order to keep people informed about vaccine safety, side effects are reported by Health Canada. To see reports of side effects following COVID-19 vaccinations, visit Health Canada's reporting website at

How can I make an informed decision about getting the vaccine?

While there is a lot of information online about the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination in general, not all of it is factual. Please consider credible sources when making a decision about your child's vaccination. The following can be considered as trustworthy sources for information about the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination:

Common myths

When it comes to the COVID-19 vaccine, you may have questions about what is true and what is not. The following are credible answers to common questions and misconceptions.

Myth 1 - Children don’t get sick from COVID-19, so why do they need the COVID-19 vaccine?

Children with COVID-19 usually have mild symptoms, or no symptoms at all. However, in some cases, children have developed more severe symptoms and required hospitalization; even if they didn't have other health conditions. The benefits of getting vaccinated far exceed any risk. Even if a child becomes infected with COVID-19, the vaccine will protect them from severe illness.

Research shows that people who become infected by COVID-19 are at higher risk of long-term side effects (or "long COVID"), even if the infection itself was mild. Common lingering side effects of a COVID-19 infection can include breathing problems resulting from scar tissue in the lungs, ongoing muscle pains and headaches, organ damage to the heart and brain, memory loss, blood clots, mood disorders, and more.

Myth 2 - The vaccines were rushed into production and are not safe for kids.

No shortcuts were taken in the research and development of the COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada. Vaccines that are approved by Health Canada have been determined to be safe and effective following thorough and independent, scientific, review of the research and associated data. Advancements in vaccine technology, sustained funding and cooperation among experts in the field have allowed these vaccines to be developed quickly.6

Myth 3 - The COVID-19 vaccine affects human reproduction and fertility.

This is not true. There is no evidence to suggest that any of the COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada have any effect on human reproduction or fertility. Learn more about COVID-19 vaccines and pregnancy →

Frequently asked questions

It’s okay to have questions about the COVID-19 vaccine for children and youth. We want you to have the best information available when making a decision about your child's vaccination.

How can I prepare my child for their COVID-19 vaccination?

Preparing your child for the vaccination appointment can result in a more positive vaccination experience for both you and your child. Pain and anxiety do not have to be part of the experience. The following evidence-informed tips have been compiled to help support you and your child before and during the vaccination appointment, in order to help reduce stress, anxiety and pain. 

What do I say to my child? What should I avoid saying?

  • Be honest by telling your child about the vaccination appointment least a day in advance.2
  • Listen to your child, validate their concerns, and answer any of their questions in an age-appropriate way. Explain in simple terms what will happen during the appointment. This can include telling them things such as: “You will get some liquid, called a vaccine to protect you from COVID-19. The vaccine goes into your arm with a needle, and it will help your body to fight off COVID germs”.
  • Avoid giving false reassurances, such as “It won’t hurt”. When asked by your child if it will hurt, use words that reduce anxiety, such as “You may feel some pressure, a pinch or a quick poke for a few seconds”.2

How can I help my child have a positive experience when they receive the vaccine?

The Centre for Pediatric Pain Research has produced a 2-minute video called "It Doesn't Have To Hurt" to provide some helpful advice on how parents can support their child in managing their pain and anxiety during childhood vaccination.4 You can watch it here →

The CARD System
The CARD System for Parents and Caregivers provides ways to reduce fear and anxiety about vaccinations. Parents and caregivers can use the CARD system (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) to help reduce needle fear and anxiety, in order to help your child cope with stressful situations like getting vaccinated.

Distraction Kits
You can help your child identify what they would like to bring to the vaccination clinic to help them feel more comfortable. These comfort measures can be included in a Distraction Kit that you can bring to the clinic for your child's appointment.

  • Some examples of what to add to a Distraction Kit include an iPad / tablet / smart phone to play a game or listen to music (bring headphones), books, fidget toys (e.g., fidget spinners, pop-its, squishy toys, etc.). Please note that access to Wi-Fi cannot be guaranteed at the vaccination clinics.
  • Bubbles or blowing toys will not be permitted at the clinic due to COVID-19 transmission concerns.

For more distraction tips, download the Children’s Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre’s Distraction Guide: A Break Down For Different Ages (PDF).

Numbing Creams
There are several over-the-counter products that provide topical relief from pain, also known as numbing creams, available at pharmacies and other retailers. Maxeline is the product used at Children’s Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre. This resource, Numbing Cream for Vaccines (PDF), provides more information about the product. If you have any further questions, please consult a pharmacist. Please note: numbing creams would need to be applied prior to the vaccination clinic appointment in order to allow time for the product to work.

What can I do to prepare for the day of the appointment?

  • Make sure to bring your child’s Ontario health card to any vaccine appointment.
  • Make sure your child wears a short-sleeved shirt or a shirt with sleeves that can be rolled up easily.
  • Children under the age of one year will receive their vaccine in their leg muscle. Easy to remove clothing would be helpful for access to the area.
  • Make sure your child eats before a vaccine appointment. This will help prevent them from feeling faint or dizzy while being vaccinated.
  • Do not give your child acetaminophen (i.e., Tylenol) or ibuprofen (i.e., Advil) before they receive the vaccine.

How can I support and comfort my child during the vaccination appointment?

How you can help during the vaccination process:

  • Remain calm, be positive and use your regular speaking voice.5
  • Avoid telling your child “it will be over soon” and “it’s going to be ok”.4
  • Bring out the Distraction Kit items that you brought to the clinic with you. Depending on what you've brought along, you can play an active role in helping to distract your child.
  • If your child has brought headphones to listen to music, you can encourage active listening during the vaccination appointment by asking your child to find the message in the lyrics of the song, when the music changes tempo or volume, or what instruments are being used.8
  • If your young child would prefer to sit on your lap during the vaccination, hold your child in an upright seated position. Older children are also encouraged to sit in an upright seated position, as it helps children to feel more secure and in control over the situation.2
  • Encourage your child to relax their arm and to take deep breaths.5
  • Use neutral language and don’t draw attention to the pain that your child may be experiencing.3

What should I expect after my child's vaccination appointment?

Have a conversation with your child about their vaccination experience.

  • Talk to your child about any pain they experienced during the vaccination (i.e., no pain, a little pain, medium, or a lot).
  • Use your child's feedback to discuss plans for how to prepare for their next appointment (such as how to lessen any pain the child experienced).3

What about side effects?
Not all children will experience side effects after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine; most side effects tend to be minor and typically do not last for long.  Examples of potential side effects include:

  • Pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site
  • Tiredness
  • Headache
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Chills or fever

Use a cool damp cloth to reduce soreness and use pain or fever medication if needed after the dose is administered. These potential minor side effects are an indication that the vaccine is working, and that the body is mounting an immune response.

Serious side effects are rare.
If you experience any of the symptoms below, seek medical attention right away or call 9-1-1.

  • Hives (bumps that are very itchy)
  • Swelling of the face, tongue, or throat
  • Difficulty breathing, or chest pain
  • Very high fever (+40°C)
  • Blurred vision, or severe/worsening headache
  • Swelling or coldness in arms or legs
  • Multiple small bruises or red/purple spots on skin

What other information and supports are available?

Talk to your primary health care provider if you have any further questions.

Your primary care provider is a reliable source of information that can help answer your questions about whether or not to vaccinate your child.

Toronto Public Health has also created a helpful list of considerations related to the risks and benefits of COVID-19 (see Risks and benefits of COVID-19 in Children).1

The Children’s Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre

If your child has severe needle anxiety, general anxiety, behavioural or other special needs, and/or sensory needs, there is a vaccination clinic at Children’s Hospital that can provide your child with additional supports. Call 519-685-8500 ext. 56918 (9AM to 5PM, Monday to Friday) for more information.

Max the Vax
Max the Vax is a child-friendly character who’s working with a team of Canadian physicians, scientists, and health care providers to share trusted, evidence-based content about COVID-19 and vaccines. The campaign is supported by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and is helping children and caregivers to learn more about the COVID-19 vaccine for children.

Date of creation: October 28, 2021
Last modified on: February 23, 2024


1Toronto Public Health. (2021, October 20). COVID-19: Children & Vaccines [webpage]. Retrieved from
2HealthLinkBC. (2021, August). A Better Immunization Experience for your Child [pdf]. Retrieved from
3Help Eliminate Pain in Kids and Adults. (no date). Needles Don't Have to Hurt [pamphlet]. Retrieved from
4IKW Health Centre. (2013). It doesn’t have to hurt [Video]. Retrieved from
5Immunize Canada. (2022, May 3). Pain Management During Immunizations for Children [webpage]. Retrieved from
6Health Canada. (2023, January 11). COVID-19: Vaccine safety and side effects [webpage] Retrieved from
7Government of Ontario. (2023, October 16). COVID-19 vaccine safety [webpage]. Retrieved from
8Children’s Hospital. (no date). Children’s Comfort Promise: Music for Distraction. [Video]. Children’s Hospital: London Health Science Centre.